Template:A/V Glossary

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Template:Amplifier

Template:Analog Signal



Component Video
  • analog video signal that splits video into three components: blue, red, and luma (brightness)
  • ( Red - Green - Blue ) set of three RCA connectors
  • also called YPbPr
  • has much clearer image quality with better colors than Composite or S-Video signals
  • capable of supporting Progressive Scan and HD resolutions

External Wikipedia Link



Composite Video
  • analog video signal extremely common on TVs, DVD players, VCRs, and receivers
  • only supports standard definition picture
  • ( Yellow ) RCA connector

External Wikipedia Link

Template:DVD Player

Template:Digital Audio

Template:Digital Signal



Display Formats
  • specifies horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels, scan mode (progressive or interlaced); refresh rate and color depth are sometimes also included
    • Example: 1920x1080p60 24bpp
      • Horizontal Resolution = 1920 pixels
      • Vertical Resolution = 1080 pixels
      • Scan Mode = p for progressive scan
      • Refresh Rate = 60 Hertz (Hz)
      • Color Depth = 24 bits per pixel (bpp)
        • in practice, refresh rate is almost always 60Hz and color depth is almost always 24bpp, so they are usually omitted


Common Display Formats for TVs
  • 640x480i - traditional analog broadcast TV resolution
  • 640x480p - sometimes marketed as "EDTV" resolution
  • 1280x720p - first wave of TVs marketed as "HD"
  • 1920x1080i - marketed as "HD" despite being interlaced
  • 1920x1080p - highest typical resolution for TVs, marketed as "Full HD"


External Wiki Link



DisplayPort
  • primarily for digital video, but can also carry audio, USB, analog video, and more
  • most common on high-end LCD monitors, especially large IPS panel monitors
  • all versions support up to 8 channels of digital audio
  • all versions support progressive scan video and HD resolutions
  • support for higher resolutions and new features in later versions:
    • Ver. 1.0/1.1 - up to 2560x1600 at 60Hz
    • Ver. 1.2 - up to 3840x2160 resolution (maybe higher) at 60Hz, Mini DisplayPort connector, multiple stereoscopic 3D modes, ability to daisy-chain multiple displays, and more
    • see Display Formats for more info
  • compatible with HDMI, DVI, and VGA video signal with adapter
  • uses rectangular metal connector with one angled flat corner and 20 internal pins

External Wikipedia Link

Mini DisplayPort (MiniDP)
  • mini version of connector, originally proprietary to Apple but later became part of DisplayPort Ver. 1.2 spec
  • increasingly common on laptops, high-end displays, and newer desktop graphics cards
  • used by Intel for their Thunderbolt port technology

External Wikipedia Link



DVI
  • Digital Video Interface
  • very common on desktop computers and modern computer displays, far less common on laptops, very rarely used by TVs
  • same digital video signal used by HDMI and DisplayPort, can be adapted to/from either one with a dongle
  • multiple versions of connector with up to 29 pins: main group consisting of three rows of eight pins each, plus a single wide, flat pin surround by four pins for analog signals
    • DVI-D - supports digital video only
      • Single-Link DVI-D is missing the four analog pins and the six middle pins of the main group
      • Dual-Link DVI-D uses all but the four analog pins
    • DVI-I - supports both digital and analog video, can be adapted to VGA with a simple dongle, usually the output port on a computer is this type
      • Single-Link DVI-I has all pins but the six middle pins of the main group
      • Dual-Link DVI-I has the full set of pins and can be used for any mode
    • DVI-A - supports analog video only, contains only the analog pins and half of the main group, usually only found on VGA-to-DVI adapters
    • Mini-DVI used by some Apple laptops
    • Micro-DVI pretty much never used, except by some Apple MacBook Air laptops
    • all versions support progressive scan video and HD resolutions:
      • max resolution of Single-Link at 60Hz is 1920x1200p60
      • max resolution of Dual-Link at 60Hz is 2560x1600p60
      • see Display Formats for more info


See External Wikipedia Link for images of different connector versions



HDMI
  • High-Definition Multimedia Interface
  • connector type that can carry both digital video and digital audio in a single cable
  • all versions support multi-channel digital audio
  • all versions support progressive scan video and HD resolutions up to 1920x1200
  • support for higher resolutions and new features in later versions:
    • Ver. 1.3 - 2560x1600p60 at typical color depths
    • Ver. 1.4 - up to 4096x2160p24 resolution, stereoscopic 3D
    • see Display Formats for more info
  • compatible with DVI video signal - can be adapted with simple dongle or cable
  • uses flat metal connector with two inward curving corners and 19 internal pins
    • Mini and Micro version of cable sometimes used with portable devices

External Wikipedia Link

Template:High Definition



Interlaced Video
  • display method that consists of drawing only alternating lines of video signal during a single display refresh cycle
Example: Frame 1 of a video signal is broken up into many horizontal lines of pixels. Lines 1, 3, 5, 7... of the image are drawn by the display during its first refresh cycle, which we'll call Frame 1a. At the display's next refresh cycle, Frame 1b, it draws lines 2, 4, 6, 8... of Frame 1. It then draws lines 1, 3, 5, 7... of the next frame of the video, then lines 2, 4, 6, 8... and so on for each successive frame.
  • common for analog video, especially over a Coaxial, RCA, or S-Video cable
  • denoted by an i at the end of a display format, e.g. 480i or 1080i
  • vertical resolution effectively halved because at any given moment only half the pixels in a given column are active
  • video quality is blurry and faint compared to Progressive Scan video
  • unpleasant 'combing' pattern is sometimes visible on in scenes with lots of action, horizontal motion, or fast camera panning
  • de-interlacing can reducing appearance of 'combing' when an interlaced video is played back on a progressive scan display

External Wikipedia Link

Template:LCD Display

Template:Pixel



Progressive Scan
  • display method that consists of drawing each line of a video frame successively during each display refresh cycle
Example: Frame 1 of a video signal is broken up into many horizontal lines of pixels. The display draws each line of the image successively from top to bottom during its first refresh cycle. When Frame 2 of video signal arrives, the display draws it in the same fashion during its next refresh cycle.
  • significantly better image quality than Interlaced Video, sharper with much better effective vertical resolution
  • mostly found in computer monitors and HDTVs, display method of all LCD displays
  • uncommon in analog video, except over Component Video or VGA connections
  • common in digital video, especially over DVI, HDMI, and DisplayPort connections
  • denoted by an p at the end of a display format, e.g. 480p, 720p, or 1080p
  • High Definition formats are also Progressive Scan except 1080i

External Wikipedia Link



RCA
  • most common audio/video connector type, used for Stereo audio, Composite and Component video, and Digital Coaxial audio
  • also commonly referred to as phono, cinch, or composite connector
  • color coded depending on signal type:
    • ( Red - White ): stereo audio
    • ( Yellow ): composite video
    • ( Red - Green - Blue ): component video (sometimes also used for RGB video)
    • ( Orange ) or ( Black ): digital coaxial audio

External Wikipedia Link



RGB
  • analog video signal type employed by VGA video ports on computers
  • several cable types with different uses:
    1. common VGA cable with DB-15 connector on both ends
      • used to connect computers to monitors, projectors, and some TVs
    2. cable with three BNC connectors on each end, or VGA connector on one end and three BNC connectors on the other
      • was usually used for professional/commercial-grade analog video
    3. some cables will have a VGA connection on one end and a set of ( Red - Green - Blue ) RCA connectors on the other end
      • these cables are not Component Video and will not work with TVs, DVD Players, or other common consumer-grade electronics

External Wikipedia Link

Template:Receiver

Template:Resolution

Template:Record Player



S-Video
  • analog video signal
  • splits video signal into two components: luma (brightness, Y), and chroma (color, C)
  • uses single connector with four pins within a round metal collar
  • better than Composite Video, but not as good as Component Video

External Wikipedia Link

Template:A/V Speakers

Template:Standard Definition



Stereo
  • audio consisting of two channels (Left and Right)
  • can be digital or analog, but is traditionally analog
  • most common cable types use ( Red - White ) or ( Red - Black ) RCA connectors, 1/8" Mini-jacks, or 1/4" Jacks

External Wikipedia Link



VGA
  • common analog video connector for computers and monitors
  • uses DE-15 connector (looks like a Serial Port but with 15 pins)
  • ports and ends of cables usually blue in color
  • can carry HD resolutions and Progressive Scan signals
  • best common analog video standard
  • has been obsoleted by Digital Video standards such as DVI, HDMI, and DisplayPort

External Wikipedia Link