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The drive you want to check must be unmounted or the check itself may corrupt the filesystem!!
sudo fsck [options] [device name]
These require sudo.
To list mounted drives:
To mount everything in /etc/fstab:
To list all recognized drives and partitions:
To reboot, forcing fsck on root filesystem:
shutdown -rF now
To fsck all unmounted filesystems with pass number > 0 in /etc/fstab:
To pretend fsck:
To make fsck skip mounted filesystems and exit cleanly:
To fsck a broken filesystem, automatically answering "yes" to prompts: